Skin pigmentation occurs under the influence of melanocytes – coloring pigment cells. With pigment dysfunctions, there is a rise or vice versa, a decrease in the normal color of the skin.
The color pigment of the skin is conditioned by the constitutional pigmentation and depends on genetics, which assumes a different combination of the main skin pigments: melanin (brown pigment), carotene (yellow), oxyhemoglobin (red) and deoxyhemoglobin (blue). Pigment melanin determines the skin color of people and it prevents the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. Different skin color of different races is determined by the amount of light brown and dark brown melanin.
What are the causes of skin pigmentation? How is it conditioned and how can it be prevented?
Moles which appeared at birth are benign neoplasms from melanoblasts. Most often they have a monochromatic light / dark brown hue and slightly rise above the skin. It is important to remember that damaged mole (birthmark) can lead to its degeneration into a malignant one. To remove the mole, if it brings inconvenience, you can only after consultation with a doctor.
Birthmark (often it can be confused with a mole) – a pigmented new growth, most often formed in the childhood, which decreases in adulthood and disappears completely to old age. Most often they do not cause any inconvenience and problems. However, if you feel pain or itching at the site of a birthmark, this may indicate its degeneration into a malignant tumor. Then you urgently need to check with an oncologist and, if necessary, remove the tumor.
If the mole is on the face or open part of the body, you must prevent direct sunlight falling on it, apply the cream with a high degree of protection (the same recommendations for visiting the solarium).
The main types of skin pigmentation:
An atypical birthmark appears on the cleanest part of the skin, either as part of the mole, mainly during adolescence, or may occur at the more mature age. They have distinctive features from ordinary birthmarks. Such birthmarks are attributed to the initial stage of cutaneous melanoma.
Freckles – a kind of pigmentation, found in both children and adults. They are often predisposed people with light and red hair as a result of increased melanin formation. Remove freckles possibly with various bleaching agents and peelings. As measures of prevention, it is necessary to cover the exposed areas of the skin from direct exposure to sunlight or use sunscreens with a high protection factor.
Lentigo – looks like moles, these are small spots that appear most often at young age and in large quantities, representing a neoplasm. After the sunburn, so-called sunspot (of a light brown or yellow hue) may appear as a result of a large release of melanin.
Sun burns can lead to serious skin diseases. Severe sunburn at the young age can lead to melanoma. Obtained uniquely, they contribute to the early aging of the skin, during which the skin structure changes.
Chloasma – brown spots of uneven shape, appearing most often in people with a swarthy tinge of the skin on the face and other open areas of the body in the course of increased pigmentation. Its appearance can provoke the taking of certain medications, for example, contraceptives, pregnancy, long exposure to the sun. Chloasma passes after delivery or drug withdrawal. For the prevention, sunscreen should be used.
The change of normal skin pigmentation may be due to some of enhance sensitivity to the light, medicine or the use of foods with a substance such as lipochromes, i. e. orange, carrot. The skin restores its natural shade after changing the diet.
Old age spots appear on exposed areas of the skin after 45 years due to the increase in melanocytes.
To establish, why there was this or that pigmentation of the skin and to recommend suitable treatment only an expert can. Mesotherapy with substances of bleaching properties has proved to be excellent. Also widely used various peelings on modern machines with the application of the newest achievements in cosmetology, which became possible not only in the cold season, but also in the summer. All these facilities for the treatment of pigmentation have proven themselves, but still it is better to warn than to treat later.