Vascular asterisks are persistent enlargements of small blood vessels (capillaries), that is, they are pathological by their nature. In cosmetology they are called couperose, in medical terminology – telangiectasia.
Classification of vascular asterisks:
According to their origin, the asterisks are:
– Venous (if the width of their filaments exceeds 0.02 mm).
According to the manifestation (form), the asterisks are distinguished:
Among the main reasons for their appearance can be identified the following:
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Venous insufficiency.
- Violation of blood coagulation.
- Liver diseases.
- Pregnancy and childbirth.
- Daily long stay in an upright position, walking on high heels, lifting weights.
- Abuse of saunas and hot baths, solarium, sun.
- Excess weight.
- Decreased vascular tone.
- Flat feet, spine diseases.
- Hypovitaminosis C and P.
The removal of vascular asterisks can be carried out by the following methods:
Electrocoagulation. This method consists in local cauterization with high frequency current. A thin electrode is introduced into the vessel, through which a discharge of current passes and destroys the affected part of the vessel. This method has significant disadvantages: burns, since the current affects not only the diseased vessel, but also the skin, which is fraught with tissue scarring and pigmentation disorders. Once upon a time the electrocoagulation of blood vessels was widespread, but now it is almost gone, like cryodestruction.
Sclerotherapy. The method is a gluing of the walls of a damaged vessel using a special substance- sclerosant. The preparation is introduced through the thinnest needle into the blood vessel, causing the destruction of its walls, as a result of which they are glued together. The effect of sclerotherapy manifests itself in about 2-3 weeks. Immediately after the procedure, redness and swelling of the tissues may occur at the injection site. Injection sites are processed and they are superimposed with compressive bandages that exert pressure and thereby fix the closure of the vascular walls. Sclerotherapy provides a fairly stable result and is most effective in removing vascular asterisks on the legs. In this case, instead of bandages, you can use special compression stockings. This method has fewer limitations and contraindications than the rest.
Radio-wave surgery. This method consists in a non-contact tissue section by means of radio wave radiation and subsequent coagulation. It is painless and has no side effects in the form of scars or edema.
Ozone therapy. The method of carrying out ozonotherapy is similar to sclerotherapy, but instead of the sclerosant solution, the oxygen-ozone mixture is injected into the damaged vessels by injections. As a result of certain biochemical processes in the tissues, the destruction of the vessels and the gluing of their walls occur, which leads to the disappearance of the vascular asterisks. This method does not cause burns, scarring and pigmentation spots and does not require long-term rehabilitation.
Laser removal. The laser generates radiation of a certain frequency, to which only the affected capillaries are susceptible. As a result, the walls of the vessel are heated and sealed. For the treatment of vessels, a laser emitting in the light range of yellow and green is used. It is these rays that are absorbed by the dilated vessels, and not by the skin cells, which helps to avoid damage to it. The diameter of the light spot should be at least 3 mm. A quality laser should have a special cooling system to protect the skin from burning sensation. The laser method is applicable only for vascular filaments less than 2 mm in diameter. The number of procedures depends on the number and size of the formations. Small stars can be deleted in 1-2 procedures, with pronounced and extensive extensions; five or more sessions are required. The main advantages of laser removal are the absence of scars, pigmentation and subsequent relapses. However, it has a number of contraindications, which include pregnancy, lactation and individual intolerance.